藝術與人文教育研究所
博物館研究所
教學卓越計畫
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敦煌陽宅風水文獻初探*

邱博舜**、蔡明志***xxx

摘要

       本研究乃藉由敦煌文獻中與風水相關的手稿的解讀,試圖建立中國中古時期風水環境認知的知識框架。共計蒐羅了一十六篇逾三萬字與風水相關的文獻,但並未收入俗稱陰宅的墓葬部分。
       在這一十六篇敦煌風水文獻中,可發現盛行於東漢魏晉的「五姓宅法」,以及在明清二代大行其道的「八宅法」之雛形。除了這二個風水環境的知識體系同時呈現之外,亦已可見道教相關符咒儀式與風水術的結合。目前無法推知各篇文獻確切抄錄年代,但就整體而言,其時約在晚唐宋初的西元九世紀中葉至十一世紀初左右。由此可見,敦煌風水文獻的抄錄年代極可能是此二類風水環境知識體系並陳交替之時。
        敦煌風水文獻中之五姓宅法各篇大抵抄錄自同一來源,互相補全。部份文字亦可見於宋代之《重校正地理新書》,以及年代尚未釐清的《黃帝宅經》。形式上有文有圖。在文方面,內容包括了五姓各音姓的定義、地形吉凶、四方作舍先後與移徙之法,以及相關修造雜忌。在圖方面,各音姓宅各有兩類圖式:一為以宅地為主要對象的「宅地圖」,以廿四方位配屬十二神以定其吉凶;另一以宅院本身為主的「宅圖」,是以廿四方位配屬以建除十二神及十二月將以定吉凶。文末並以「陰陽五姓宅圖同看用之」一圖結合「宅地圖」與「宅圖」,並加上四門與八口之家,此圖當為《黃帝宅經》陰陽宅圖之所本。這些圖式所賴以呈現之方形圖象,可經常見於唐宋二代的天文曆書與占卜術數,其結構類同於古代式盤,雖為四方形象,但可能暗蘊著五行、九宮與十二度的內涵,除方便操作時整合空間系統與時間系統外,其中尚存在著「中」的概念。
        總言之,敦煌風水文獻大抵可視為代表晚唐經五代以迄宋初之風水環境知識。其重要性在於既承接了東漢以降的五姓擇地之術,亦呈現盛行於明清二代八宅之法的雛形,在風水文獻史上占有承先啟後、釐清中國中古時期風水環境知識的重要位置。


關鍵詞:敦煌、風水、五姓、八宅、宅圖


A Preliminary Survey on the Dunhuang Manuscripts of Fengshui.

Chiou, Bor–Shuenn** Tsai, Ming–Chih**

Abstract

       This survey was attempted to establish the fengshui knowledge system in the Chinese Middle Ages by investigating the Dunhuang Manuscripts of fengshui. Sixteen manuscripts of 30,000 words in total length were collected, excluding those concerning burial.
        From the contents of these sixteen, it could be found the presence of the wuxing zhai fa (五姓宅法the Dwelling Method of the Five Surnames), prevailing during the Eastern Han and the Wei Dynasties, and the bazhai fa (八宅法the Method of the Eight Dwellings) in embryo, which was to prevail in the Ming and the Qing Dynasties; as well as the combination of fengshui with the Daoist magic and rituals. These sixteen could only be roughly dated to the period between the ninth and the mid-eleventh centuries, thus presumed the time denoting the transition from the wuxing zhai fa to the bazhai fa.
        Those manuscripts concerning the wuxing zhai fa were probably derived from one source, and were complementary to one another. Part of their contents could be seen in the Congjiaozheng dili xinshu (重校正地理新書 the Revised New Book on Fengshui) of the Song Dynasty, and the Huangdi zhaijing (黃帝宅經 the Yellow Emperor’s Dwelling Classics) of pending date. The written contents of the wuxing zhai fa, as shown in these manuscripts, include the phonetic definition of the Five Surnames, the good/bad luck judgment of land form, the directional priority of building dwelling units and the method to move between them, as well as relative building taboos; and the illustrated contents of which showed that for each of the Five Surnames there were two kinds of dwelling charts: one was the zhaidi tu (宅地圖the Chart of the Dwelling Plot), whose good/ bad luck judgment was based on the allocation of the ershisi fangwei (二十四方位the Twenty-four Points) to the shi’er shen (十二神the Twelve Spirits) ; the other was the zhai tu (宅圖the Chart of the Dwelling), whose good/ bad luck judgment was based on the allocation of the ershisi fangwei to the Jianchu shi’er shen (建除十二神the Twelve Jianchu Spirits) and the shi’er yuejiang (十二月將the Generals of the Twelve Months). In the end, a third chart appeared, called the yinyang wuxing zhaitu tongkan yongzhi (陰陽五姓宅圖同看用之To Be Consulted for the Dwelling Charts of Yin and Yang and the Five Surnames), which combined the zhaidi tu and the zhai tu together with the simen (四門the Four Doors) and the bakou zhijia (八口之家the family of eight members), and should be where the yinyang zhaitu (陰陽宅圖the Yin and Yang Dwelling Charts) in the Hangdi zhaijing were derived. These charts were presented with a square framework, similar to what could be found in the books of astronomy, calendar and divination of the Tang and the Song Dynasties. This square framework should be derived from the shi pan (式盤the Shi board) of the ancient time, and was full of the implication of the wuxing (五行the Five Elements), the jiugong (九宮the Nine Palaces) and the shi’er du (十二度the Twelve Points). This square made it easier to integrate the manipulation of spatial and temporal systems, and could also imply the concept of the center.
        On the whole, the Dunhuang manuscripts of fengshui were roughly representative of the fengshui knowledge of the Late Tang, through the Five Dynasties, to the Song, which inherited the land selecting manipulation of the wuxing (五姓the Five Surnames) of the Eastern Han onwards, and heralded the manipulation of the bazhai (八宅the Eight Dwellings), in prevalence in the Ming and the Qing, thus had played a transitional role in fengshui history and was also important in the clarification of the fengshui knowledge in the Chinese Middle Ages.

Key words: Dunhuang, Fengshui, Wuxing (the Five Surnames), Bazhai (the Eight Dwellings), Zhai tu (the Chart of the Dwelling)

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* 收稿日期:2004.08.09;通過日期:2004.10.01

**x國立臺北藝術大學建築與古蹟保存研究所副教授
***  國立成功大學建築系博士候選人

**Associate Professor, Graduate School of Architecture and Historic Preservation, Taipei National University of the Arts
***Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Architecture, National Cheng Kung University